Free radicles are unpaired and unstable atoms that can damage our body cells .Oxydation reaction reduces whole oxygen molecules to water .Partial oxygen reduction leads to Reactive Oxygen Species ROS. It is highly reactive and causes damages various constotuent in the cell. They become unstable and are known as free radicals .If this process continues, it leads to oxidative stress. Antioxidant are substances that neutrilizes the effect of free radicles and therby prevent cellular damage .
Oxidative stress can damage the body’s cells, leading to a range of diseases and accelerates the aging process, such as wrinkling of skin and other bodily changes. Body loses its ability to fight the effects of free radicals. This further increases free radical formation which leads more and more oxidative stress, causing damage to cells.Cummulative effects are degenerative changes and ageing.
METABOLISM AND FREE RADICLES. For each and every actions and reaction and neuron firing in the brain requires energy .It is obtained by metabolic processes in the body .There is oxidation of ATP Adeneine Triphosphate which is reduced to ADP– Adenine Di Phosphate .This reaction provide energy in the body ,by breaking one Phosphate molecule and emiting some free radicles.
EXTERNAL FACTORS CAUSING OXIDATIVE STRESS External Factors which accelerate Free radical formations, are Air Pollution, smoking ,ultraviolet rays from sun, medical radiations. substances causing inflammatory process in the body. Medical radiations are Xray used in diagnosis and gamma rays used in radiotherapy.
EFFECT OF FREE RADICLES Accelarated aging ,Alzheimer disease ,dementia cardiovascular disease , some autoimmune diseases and inflammatory disorders rheumatoid ,arthritis and cancers are effect of free radicle damage . Besides age-related changes such as loss of skin elasticity, wrinkles, graying of hair, hair loss. There is overall reduction of life-span due to free-radicle damage.
ATTIOXIDANTS NEUTRILIZES THE FREE RADICLES. .Antioxidants are needed to counteract the harmful effects of free radicles. It may be replenished either in the form of supplements or by natural sourses. Natural sources are more effective than suppliments Their main function is to break the chain reaction, which creates Free-radicals. There are three types of antioxidants. 1-1-1-1 –Enzymatic antioxidants 2-Vitamin Antioxidants 3-Mineral Antioxidants. Enzymatic Antioxidants are Superoxide Desmutase ,Catalase and Glutathione peroxidase. Vitamins AOx are Tochopherol- Vit E, Beta-carotene,Vit-A, Ascorbic acid Vit-C. Mineral Anti-oxidants are Magnesium, Copper, Zinc and Selenium. Following are natural sources of antioxidants .
Thus we see that Free radicles are unstable atoms ,which are product of natural metabolism in the body and are also produced from the external sourses . In order to remain healthy and youthful we should try to reduce it as far as posible. Satish Tripathi sctri48